How To Adjust Ukulele Action At The Saddle

1 May 2016

How To Adjust Ukulele Action At The Saddle

A little while ago I put up a video explaining that any ukulele player should not be afraid of adjusting their instrument for optimum play. Ukuleles, like many stringed musical instruments are designed to have certain things adjusted to assist the player. It's called a 'setup'. For some reason it's an area that people are scared of but they really shouldn't be. That video is here by the way. (How To Adjust Ukulele Setup)

That was, however just a general introduction, and I thought it was about time that I actually did a demonstration video and written guide to look at one of these adjustments in a lot more detail. The action at the ukulele saddle.

The vast majority of ukuleles will come with a removeable saddle at the bridge end of the strings, and that is removable for a reason. It's the white strip, usually made of bone or plastic, sitting in the bridge mounting over which the tail end of the strings sits before being tied off. The bridge does a number of highly important things for the ukulele. Firstly, it transfers the vibration of the strings down into the soundboard. Secondly it sets the accurate scale length of each string - ie the vibrating length of the string for accurate intonation  when you fret them. And thirdly it controls the height of the string off the top of the fingerboard. This last point is called the 'action' and it's what we are looking at today.

Often a ukulele can arrive with an overly high action, or can even develop a higher action over time as the stresses of the strings start to pull the neck up. They can also arrive with a low action. A high action makes it harder to press the strings down onto the frets at best, and if it is very high it can affect the tuning accuracy when played (the intonation). A low action can create buzzing as the action of plucking a string creates a wave down the length of it that can clip the top of the frets.

First of all, and contrary to many armchair expert advisors views, there is no perfect action setting that suits everybody. There is only an acceptable 'range'. And that is a range that gives the best compromise between playability and tuning accuracy. Go too high and you have the difficulty in fretting I mentioned above, and go too low and you create buzzing. One of the biggest myths is that you should set the action as low as you can go without buzzing. This is not particularly good advice as some very low, but non buzzing action settings can suck all tone and volume out of the strings. In short it needs to be a little higher than that. The point you go for is really down to you as a player. I know how I like my action (at the lower end) but not everybody does. The only way you will work that out is to try it.

What I find though is many players who have never considered adjusting their ukulele may be missing an opportunity. They struggle on with overly high action settings and think that it is 'just the way it is'.

So how do you measure your action? Well, you need to take a careful measurement of the distance between the bottom of the strings and the top of the 12th fret of the ukulele, this being the halfway point of the string. To measure this you really need to invest in a metal straight ruler with measurements that run right to the end of the metal so when you place it down at the tip you get an accurate reading. They are not expensive and available in all DIY stores for a few pounds. Even better you can use a string height ruler designed for stringed instruments which come with markings for common string heights in various formats. You simply hold the ruler on the top of the 12th fret and note the distance between the top of the fret and the bottom of the strings. You can check each one as on most ukuleles the fretboard is flat so they should be around the same (taking into account the different string thicknesses). (Note - if you do have a curved fingerboard, called a radius fingerboard, you will need to adjust for this).

What is the optimum? Well, like I say -it's a range really. That range depends on the string gauge and also how you play the ukulele. A more vigourous style of strumming will require a little more clearance to allow for the excessive string vibration.  For me a low action would be about 6/64ths of an inch (or 0.093 inches, or about 2.2mm). At the upper end I would go no higher than about 8/64ths (or ⅛ inch, or 0.125 inches or about 3mm). If you check your instrument and you are below the lower figure it is likely you are on the verge of string buzz or not getting the optimum tone projection and you you need to raise the saddle. If you are above the higher figure, you may be finding it a chore to press the strings down on upper frets, or are finding your fingers are getting tangled on strums or even having intonation issues.

Now for the adjustment downwards. You can take the long winded path of removing the strings, sanding the base of the saddle a little, replacing it, re-stringing it, checking it, then repeating it until it is right. You can also use a bit of mathematics to help us. Because the string creates a very long thin triangle between the saddle and the top of the 12th fret, if you find your action at the 12th is (say) 0.5mm too high, because the 12th is the halfway point of the string, taking down the saddle by double   that amount will lower the action at the 12th by 0.5mm. So it's a case of noting the height you are at, working out how much lower you want to take it, and then multiplying that by 2. That is the amount to drop the saddle by. Want to drop the action by 0.5mm, drop the saddle by 1mm.. and so on.  You can then mark that depth on the saddle with a pencil and a straight edge.

Now the tricky part - you now need to sand down the base of the saddle (leave the top alone!!) to just reach the line you marked. The trick here is to keep the base of the saddle perfectly flat. If you dont do this you will find that the saddle will dip back or forward in the slot, affecting tuning, or wont make a clean contact with the soundboard.  You can do this with a large piece of sandpaper on a hard surface working it slowly and monitoring what you are taking off. Even better is to put the saddle in a metal topped vice upside down with only the amount of saddle below your pencil mark visible. Even a cheap hobby vice will do as it's not a particularly strenuous job. You can then take a file, sandpaper or a Dremel to the base and be sure you are only taking off what you need. Sand it down, keeping it flat until you are at the marked point. I cannot stress enough how important it is to keep the base absolutely flat!

And that is it for a high action - replace the saddle and restring and you should be good to go. If you measured accurately you shouldn't face problems and your action will be lower.

Of course mistakes do happen though, so what if you go too low and create a buzzing? Or what if the saddle was too low to start with? Dont panic - this is easily remedied by simply putting a shim of thin card or wood veneer under the white saddle to raise it back up a little. You may need to add a couple of layers to get the saddle to the right height, and remember you can use that 'double the required height' rule. In other words, if your string action is 0.5mm too low at the 12th fret, raising it by about 1mm at the saddle will do the trick.

And if that lot has foxed you, I created another video that shows the process in more detail!

At the end of the day - the action should be right and there is no reason why you should struggle to play an instrument that is designed to be adjusted.  A well adjusted ukulele can be a revelation. I see some shocking examples that people battle with and it need not be like this. Sure, you can pay someone to do this for you, but really it is SO easy to do - why would you do that? Get to know your instrument!!

Just go carefully and logically and you should be fine.

And as a final (final) word - there are some instruments that dont have removeable saddles. Many plastic ukuleles do and some others with moulded or carved wooden saddles. I am afraid this process wont work for you, and if you have high action you have a far more complex job on your hands involving taking the top of the saddle down. I would urge lots of caution here as whilst dropping the top will work, it is very easy to throw the shape of the saddle top out and create tuning issues. I'd seek professional help for those! There are also some rarer features on some ukuleles that can assist with buzzing strings called truss rods running through the length of the neck. You really dont see many of those though and they are more for neck relief and NOT for adjusting action. I may deal with those in a future post.

Good luck!

(and if you want a string action ruler - it's one of those things that Amazon are perfect for.

String Action ruler -

String Action ruler - )




  1. Nice article, Barry. I've successfully used a bit of a credit card as an under-saddle shim to raise the action from just buzzing a bit to not buzzing.

  2. You can always write a blues song about it.

    'Too high baby, too high, that string is way too high
    Too high baby, too high, that string's sitting way too high
    Take a bit of the saddle, and the action gets by

    Oh no baby, oh no, now you're way too low
    Too low, too low, now your strings buzzin' oh so low
    Get some piece of wood, and you'll be good to go.'

  3. I do like Karl's song. But what's the strumming pattern? ;-)

    I recently bought my first ukulele - an Islander MSC-4, which is the concert version of the MST-4 tremor reviewed by Barry a while ago. I was seduced by her tone, the wide fretboard and the feel of the tuning pegs. I am far from disappointed, but I didn't notice at the time that the action was a bit high at both the nut and at the 12th fret. All this is a long preamble to my question: if the strings are high over the nut, is it unwise to adjust the bridge end? And secondary to that, is it difficult to remove the nut to file the underside? I am pretty sure that it would be good in place and I really can't afford to damage the instrument! I suppose another supplementary question should be whether I should let the ukulele get used to the humidity level of my house before doing anything or having anything done?

    Many thanks for all your advice here and on YouTube.

  4. No - the action at the nut and the saddle are different things and they both need to be right / both are independent of each other. I actually deliberately dealt only with the saddle for the simple reason that reducing the nut is a lot more difficult.

    If the nut is easily removed, yes you can take some off the bottom, but the margins are much much smaller. The problem is that the vast majority of ukuleles have nuts that are hard to remove in that way leaving you with the option of going down in the slots. That is a skilled thing to do and requires specialist tools that cost a fair bit of money (nut files). Not really something I wanted to get into recommending for beginner.

    The humidity of your home can change things but not all that much and certainly unlikely to go from a high action to a low one once it has settled. If you have measured the action that the 12th and it is high I would wager that it will STAY high.

  5. Thanks, Barry. I am convinced of the need to take the ukulele back to the shop to get them to adjust it. As the strings need to be as close as parallel as possible to the fretboard, I am guessing that it would probably not be a good idea to adjust the saddle height before the action at the nut has been corrected.

    The instrument isn't that bad, but the notes do become a bit high when fretted at the nut end in particular, so it will need to be sorted out in due course. I hope I can take it in and have it done the same day so I don't have to leave it behind. I'd miss it! I might have to get one of those cool-looking action measuring rulers anyway... :-)

    Thanks once again.

  6. No, that's not quite what I meant. You can set a perfect saddle regardless of the nut. No issue doing one without the other. Will still need doing at the nut though, but equally you can fix the nut and not touch the saddle. They are pretty much independent because the measurements at the nut are incredibly tiny.

  7. Oh, I see. Many thanks. As the nut will need to be done and I rarely, as a beginner, go too high up the fretboard, I'll probably get both done by the experts. If it was just the saddle end, I might well have tried it myself, spurred on by the confidence you inspire.


  8. Getting the saddle right isn't just about making it easier for playing up the fretboard - it also critically affects intonation and ease of strumming

  9. Martin Oyen here. imho you made a calculating error: somewhere in the vid you say: "when the string is 2mm too high at the 12th fret, you have to lower the bridge by 4mm." i think this is only true when the action at/around the 1st position is (a theoretical) 0mm. (i don't have a google account or live journal or wordpress or anything so i file this anonymous).

  10. Yes, probably, but it's only a general guide - the important thing is to do it slow and replace it regularly to check you are not going too far.

  11. Fretting over first near impossible. Action is high. Third fret test reveals daylight. Action is great at saddle. No issues with tuning or intonation. I just need help with "hard to press down strings at first fret. Appreciate any help. Thanks,

  12. Ah - did you comment on YouTube - just replied. If the check with 3rd fret checks out ok, then it may simply be you getting used to strings (they are never 'easy' on fingers starting out) or you might want to try a low tension set of strings

  13. Advice on adjusting action at nut would be appreciated. I am not afraid of mucking it up. Willing to purchase proper slot files or any other tools required. Closest luthier is 2 states away. All I have is the generic Guitar Center people whom don't know jack.

  14. If the 3rd fret test checks out (and a bit of daylight is just fine - just so long as there isn't several mm there) - they I would strongly advise not to take it down. If it is high, you do need nut files for the right gauge and it's very tough to write an article on how to do it. The key is to keep the base rounded, avoid sharp edges and keep the break point at the same place. It's tricky and very easy to mess up!

  15. Hi there Barry, I'm looking everywhere for help. I've got a plastic ukulele with the bridge to high so playing is very painful on fingers. Wondering how do I remove the bridge and I'd like to make a wooden replacement?

  16. Hi Barry, I've just purchased a plastic UKE but when putting new strings and tuning it realised the bridge bit its too high to play painlessly. I would like to remove the plastic bridge and replace with a wooden one, any advice welcome, how to pull the plastic bridge off? Melt or file?

  17. On a plastic uke - they are usually not removeable I'm afraid - more a fun ukulele than a serious instrument. I wouldn't melt it - think your only option is to sand it down - but obviously pretty much impossible to reverse if you go too far

  18. Thanks for yr help Barry much appreciated! I might need to make a new bridge was watching a video about a spongebob uke, I think the distance might be incorrect after I saw that video!

  19. This is something I need to do. You may think this is a dumb question, but what GRADE of sandpaper are you using when you sand down the bridge? I don't want to accidentally take too much off! (I think its very very useful to have the written stuff PLUS the video!). Oh, did you totally remove the strings or just leave then very loose and slide the bridge out?

  20. Help with above question too. Just got 2000 kanilea uke that plays awful. 10/64ths at 12th..

  21. Really got a lot out of thos tutorial,I was struggling with a buzz. My other problem is very low tuning pegs,hole is right on the bottom,with no way to wrap down as everyone advises. Is it ok to wrap up the peg? Thank you

  22. I lowered the action first on my j45Gibson acoustic. Once I was over the fear of making a mistake, it’s easy now. It’s best to make precise measurements like he says I’m sure but I make a mental note of how far down I want my strings to come, and take that off my saddle (making sure I keep it level). 220grit does the trick for me as it won’t take off to fast or too slow either.
    Tonight, I became tired of my Martin t1k uke just not feeling great and made lowered the saddle......what a difference.
    I’m not telling others just to wing it, but it can be done by feel and eyeball. Worst that can happen is ya have to put a bit of a shim under the saddle or get a new saddle.....not the end of the world if you play your instrument lots.
    I’ve atarted setting up all my guitars as well (got the fret files and crowning tools and whatnot and then after adjusting action, intonation is a breeze on les Paul’s. Don’t have an alternative yet but will figure it out when I get a start and tele. Take care y’all

  23. I'm new to ukulele (and instruments in general) but wanted to pick up a hobby I could obsess over. I ordered a ukulele online here in the USA from a box store before I read the advice not to do so. I think I picked a decent starter which will last me some time (Kala Pacific Walnut Concert), but it seems to need some adjustments. The action is high (about 4-4.5mm at the 12th fret), but the intonation is good. If I lower the saddle, will I be wrecking havoc on that good intonation? I'd hate to trade one problem for another.

  24. Yes - a good uke that one. 4.5mm at the 12th is overly high for me, and I would have thought would be affecting intonation. If your intonation is good that's tricky as lowering 'may' throw it out a bit.

  25. Thanks, Barry. I guess I'll keep hacking at this one and leave the saddle alone for now. When I get my next one (no one has just one, right?), I'll make sure it's professionally setup first. And thanks for the comment on the Kala PWC; it makes me feel better on my choice since I've been second guessing it for weeks now. Deep down I wish I had gotten a tenor, and something with a wider nut (the PWC is only 34mm wide). Like I said, next one. ~ Matt

  26. Hey Barry! Thanks for your great review and tech tips (please do more of the latter!) Question for you - do you think the proper action depends on whether it's a Soprano, concert or tenor? It appears to me that the lowest non-buzzing action is somewhere down at 2.5mm but you are right, it's a question of how you pick the strings. If there area different optimums for soprano/tenors could you give me your thoughts on that? Thanks! Christian

  27. Correct action at nut is either right or wrong. The saddle is more of a range and it can vary - more about personal preference than scale though

  28. There are a lot of pointers that the 6/64" or 8/64" measurement is from the top of the metal fret to the bottom of the string. That is, not to the top of the string.

    Please confirm?

    1. Measurement is from crown of fret to bottom of string. It has to be as it’s about measuring clearance.


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